December 6, 2012

Forest Pest Management Forum

This week Ottawa hosted, once again, the Forest Pest Management Forum. This is an annual meeting where people from all over Canada (and a few from the United States) gather together to share updated information about forestry pests and its management in the country. 

I have never been to those meetings, but this year a good friend and colleague, Dr. John Huber, from the Canadian Forestry Service and the Canadian National Collection of Insects (CNC) in Ottawa, suggested me to attend. And I was seriously planning to go when some unexpected complications at work prevented me to do it. 

As a "consolation prize" I ended checking the website of the meeting to at least have a sense of what was going on there. First I found a nice compilation of pdf files with the proceedings of past meetings. Anyone interested in the topics of Entomology, Forestry and Pest Management should take the time and revise that valuable source of data. There are tons of information there. One of the most interesting, in my humble opinion, is to see the historical pattern of pests, within the country and in individual provinces. You can follow the evolution of different pest problems that Canadian forests have experienced during the past years by just reading those proceedings.

I went back only seven years, up to the proceedings of the 2005 meeting. But found quite a few interesting details, and this post is to share what I found about Lepidoptera pests.

First of all, I could compile a list of 119 species and 20 families of Lepidoptera caterpillars that have been considered forestry pests
in Canada (see detailed list at the end of this post).  Half of all species belong to just two families: Geometridae (27%) and Tortricidaae (26%), and seven families account for three quarters of the species.

Lepidoptera considered as pest of Canadian forests (grand total: 119 species and 20 families). For an explanation of the data sources, see detailed list of species added at the end of this post.

Of course, most of those species are of low significance and cause minor affectations to forestry (or the damage is just too sporadic or too sparse to consider them of real importance). Actually less than a dozen species can be considered as serious pests. Still, this grand total of 119 species should remind us of how quickly things can go wrong with an insect pest. Unfortunately, the next "new pest" outbreak might be just around the corner...

Within the last seven years (2005-2011) the proceedings of the Forest Pest  Management meetings mention at least 51 of those 119 species (or 43% of the total), with a few of them being major pests, while the rest is considered of occasional and/or local importance.

[As many people know very well, the major pest problems in Canadian forestry these days are beetles (mountain pine beetle, emerald ash borer, etc) rather than moths -with a few exceptions, such as the spruce budworm. But this blog is about Lepidoptera and its braconid parasitoids, thus I will leave the analysis on beetles to some coleopterist].

Back to the topic, my next step is to try compiling how much do we know about the natural enemies of those pests in Canada. And I found that we know very few about most of the species. However, we are lucky to have a large source of unpublished and unknown data in the Braconidae collection of the CNC. There are many new records of braconid wasps parasitizing those caterpillar species that Canadian researches mention as forestry pests. Thus, in future posts I plan to follow up this thread by sharing that information, which I will be gathering while studying the CNC collection. Stay tuned for more on this soon. 

The following list provides details of 119 species of Lepidoptera that have been considered pest of Canadian forest. It was compiled from information freely available at Natural Resources Canada with some additions from the last seven Proceedings of the Forest Pest Management Forum meetings. The species are listed in alphabetical order by their scientific names, with the common names and families of Lepidoptera they belong to, also provided. Species preceded by an asterisk (*) are those mentioned in the Pest Forum meetings of the past seven years (2005-2011).

1 (*) Acleris gloverana (Walsingham) Western blackheaded budworm Tortricidae
2 (*) Acleris variana (Fernie) Eastern blackheaded budworm Tortricidae
Acossus centerensis [Lint.] Poplar carpenterworm Cossidae
4 (*) Acronicta americana (Harr.) American Dagger Moth Noctuidae
Acossus populi (Walker) Aspen carpenterworm Cossidae
6 (*) Alsophila pometaria [Harris] Fall cankerworm Geometridae
7 (*) Archips cerasivorana (Fitch) Uglynest caterpillar Tortricidae
Archips negundana (Dyar) Larger boxelder leafroller Tortricidae
9 (*) Argyresthia cupressella Walshingham Cypress tip moth Yponomeutidae
10 (*) Argyresthia thuiella (Packard) Arborvitae leafminer Yponomeutidae
Argyrotaenia citrana (Fernie) Orange tortrix Tortricidae
Argyrotaenia juglandana (Fern.) Hickory Leafroller Tortricidae
13 (*) Bucculatrix canadensisella Chambers Birch skeletonizer Bucculatrigidae
Callophrys eryphon (Boisduval) Western pine elfin Lycaenidae
Callophrys grynea barryi (Johnson) Barry’s hairstreak Lycaenidae
Callophrys grynea rosneri (Johnson) Rosner’s hairstreak Lycaenidae
17 (*) Caloptilia fraxinella (Ely) Ash leaf cone roller Gracillariidae
Caloptilia syringella (Fabricius) Lilac leafminer Gracillariidae
Cameraria aceriella (Clemens) Maple leafblotch miner Gracillariidae
20 (*) Caripeta divisata Walker Gray spruce looper Geometridae
Chionodes continuella (Zeller) Gelechiid moth Gelechiidae
22 (*) Choristoneura biennis Freeman Two-year-cycle budworm Tortricidae
23 (*) Choristoneura conflictana (Walker) Large aspen tortrix Tortricidae
24 (*) Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) Spruce budworm Tortricidae
25 (*) Choristoneura occidentalis (Freeman) Western spruce budworm Tortricidae
26 (*) Choristoneura pinus Freeman Jack pine budworm Tortricidae
27 (*) Choristoneura rosaceana (Harr.) Oblique banded leafroller Tortricidae
Cladara limitaria (Walker) Yellowlined forest looper Geometridae
Clepsis persicana (Fitch) Whitetriangle leafroller Tortricidae
30 (*) Coleophora laricella (Hubner) Larch casebearer Coleophoridae
31 (*) Coleophora serratella (Linnaeus) Birch casebearer Coleophoridae
Coleotechnites piceaella (Kearfott) Orange spruce needleminer Gelechiidae
Coleotechnites thujaella (Kft) Brown cedar leafminer Gelechiidae
34 (*) Croesia semipurpurana (Kraft) Oak leafshredder Tortricidae
Cydia strobilella Linnaeus Spruce seed moth Tortricidae
Dasychira grisefacta (Dyar) Pine tussock moth Lymantriidae
Dichomeris marginella (Fabricius) Juniper webworm Gelechiidae
Dioryctria abietivorella (Grote) Fir coneworm Pyralidae
Dioryctria pseudotsugella Munroe Dioryctria moth Pyralidae
Dioryctria reniculelloides Mutuura and Munroe Spruce coneworm Pyralidae
Ditula angustiorana (Haworth) Red-barred tortrix Tortricidae
Dolichomia thymetusalis (Walker) Spruce needleworm, Paler dolichomia moth Pyralidae
43 (*) Dryocampa rubicunda (Fabricius) Greenstriped mapleworm Saturniidae
Ectropis crepuscularia (Denis and Schiffermuller) Saddleback looper Geometridae
45 (*) Enargia decolor (Walker) Aspen twoleaf tier Noctuidae
46 (*) Ennomos subsignaria (Hbn.) Elm Spanworm Geometridae
Enypia packardata (Taylor) Packard’s gridle moth Geometridae
Epinotia radicana (Heinr.) Spruce tip moth; redstriped needleworm Tortricidae
49 (*) Epinotia solandriana (Linnaeus) Birch-aspen leafroller Tortricidae
Epinotia subviridis Heinrich Cypress leaftier Tortricidae
Epirrita autumnata (Harrison) Green velvet looper Geometridae
Epirrita pulchraria (Taylor) Whitelined looper Geometridae
53 (*) Erranis tiliaria Harris Linden looper Geometridae
Eucosma gloriola Heinrich Eastern pine shoot borer Tortricidae
Eupithecia annulata (Hulst) Larch pug moth Geometridae
Eupithecia lariciata (Frey.) Fir needle inchworm Geometridae
Eupithecia palpata Pack. Small pine looper Geometridae
Eurois occulta (Linnaeus) Great brocade Noctuidae
59 (*) Exotelia pinifoliella (Cham.) Pine Needleminer Gelechiidae
Feralia jocosa (Gn.) Redlined conifer caterpillar Noctuidae
Hemithea aestivaria (Hubner) Common emerald Geometridae
Heterocampa guttivitta Walker Saddled prominent Notodontidae
Hyalophora euryalis (Walker) Ceanothus silk moth Saturniidae
64 (*) Hydria pruneverata (Ferguson) Cherryscallopshell moth Geometridae
Hypagyrtis piniata (Pack.) Pine measuringworm moth Geometridae
66 (*) Hyphantria cunea (Drury) Fall webworm Arctiidae
67 (*) Iridopsis ephyraria (Wlk.) Pale winged grey Geometridae
Itame pustularia (Guen.) Lesser maple spanworm Geometridae
69 (*) Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guenée) Hemlock looper Geometridae
70 (*) Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa (Hulst) Western hemlock looper Geometridae
Lambdina fiscellaria somniaria (Hulst) Western oak looper Geometridae
72 (*) Leucoma salicis (L.) Satin moth Lymantriidae
Lophocampa argentata (Packard) Silverspotted tiger moth Arctiidae
74 (*) Lophocampa caryae Harris, 1841 Hickory tussock moth Arctiidae
75 (*) Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) Gypsy moth Lymantriidae
Macaria signaria dispuncta (Walker) Spruce fir looper Geometridae
Malacosoma californicum pluviale (Dyar) Northern tent caterpillar Lasiocampidae
78 (*) Malacosoma disstria Hubner Forest tent caterpillar Lasiocampidae
Melanolophia imitata (Walker) Greenstriped forest looper Geometridae
80 (*) Micrurapteryx salcifoliella (Chambers) Willow Leaf Blotch Miner Gracillariidae
Nematocampa resistaria (Herrich-Schaffer) Filament bearer Geometridae
Neoalcis californiaria (Packard) Brownlined looper Geometridae
Neophasia menapia (C. & R. Felder) Pine white Pieridae
Nepytia freemani (Munroe) Western false hemlock looper Geometridae
Nepytia phantasmaria (Strecker) Phantom hemlock looper Geometridae
Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus) Mourningcloak butterfly or spiny elm caterpillar Nymphalidae
87 (*) Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) Bruce spanworm Geometridae
Operophtera brumata (L.) Winter moth Geometridae
89 (*) Orgyia antiqua (L.) Rusty tussock moth Noctuidae
90 (*) Orgyia leucostigma (J. E. Smith) Whitemarked tussock moth Lymantriidae
91 (*) Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough) Douglas-fir tussock moth Lymantriidae
Orthosia hibisci (Guenée) Speckled green fruitworm Noctuidae
Paleacrita vernata (Peck) Spring cankerworm Geometridae
94 (*) Paraclemensia acerifoliella (Fitch) Maple leafcutter Incurvariidae
Pero morrisonaria (Hy. Edwards) Pero moth Geometridae
96 (*) Petrova albicapitana (Busck) Northern pitch twig moth/Pitch nodule maker Tortricidae
Petrova metallica (Busck) Metallic pitch blister moth Tortricidae
98 (*) Phyllocnistis populiella Chambers Common Aspen Leaf Miner or Aspen Serpentine Leafmine Gracillariidae
Podosesia syringae [Harr.] Lilac borer (Ash borer) Sesiidae
Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck) Carpenterworm Cossidae
101 (*) Pseudexentera oregonana (Wlsm.) Early Aspen Leafcurler/Leafroller Tortricidae
102 (*) Pseudosciaphila duplex (Walsingham) Spotted aspen leaf roller Tortricidae
103 (*) Rhyacionia buoliana (Denis and Schiffermuller) European pine shoot moth Tortricidae
Semiothisa sexmaculata (Packard) Green larch looper Geometridae
Sesia tibialis (Harris) Cottonwood crown borer Sesiidae
106 (*) Sparganothis acerivorana MacKay Maple leafroller Tortricidae
107 (*) Sparganothis pettitana (Rob.) Maple leafroller Tortricidae
108 (*) Symmerista canicosta Franc. Redhumped Oakworm Notodontidae
109 (*) Symmerista leucitys (Franclemont) Orangehumped Mapleworm Notodontidae
Synanthedon sequoiae (Hy. Edw.) Sequoia pitch moth Sesiidae
Syngrapha alias (Ottolengui) Spruce climbing cutworm Noctuidae
Tetracis cachexiata (Guenée) White slaut Geometridae
113 (*) Tetralopha aplastella (Hulst.) Aspen webworm Pyralidae
Zale duplicata (Bethune) Pine zale Noctuidae
115 (*) Zeiraphera canadensis Mutuura and Freeman Spruce bud moth Tortricidae
Zeiraphera hesperiana (Mutuura & Freeman) Douglas-fir bud moth Tortricidae
Zeiraphera improbana (Walker) Larch needleworm Tortricidae
Zeiraphera unfortunana Powell Purplestriped shootworm Tortricidae
Zelleria haimbachi Busck Pine needle sheathminer Yponomeutidae

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